Thursday 12 September 2013

Posted by Howzto
No comments | 13:20
Rice is a seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia.It is the second largest crop produced after maize.


Rice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area in 2009 of approximately 158 million hectares, producing more than 700 million tons annually (470 million tons of milled rice). About 90% of the rice in the world is grown in Asia (nearly 640 million tons). India and china account for the 3/4 of the rice grown in the world. As shown in the map rice is largely grown in asia and is one of the major food across asia. Rice-growing environments are based on their hydrological characteristics and include irrigated, rainfed lowland, and rainfed upland. Worldwide there are more than 40,000 different varieties of rice, species name Oryza sativa.


Rice grows through several process such as 

    1.Seed selection
    2.Land preparation
    3.Crop establishment
    4.Water management
    5.Nutrient management
    6.Crop health


SEED SELECTION:                                                                                                     

                         It is a process involving selecting the right type of rice seed for the given land.The seed selection must ensure it will have a maximum yield.It is the first and most important step for rice farming.


                        This process involves preparing the land for the planting of seeds. It involves making the land physical condition to suit the cultivation.
Land preparation involves plowing and harrowing to "till" or dig-up, mix, and overturn the soil, and leveling.

CROP ESTABLISHMENT:                                            
 The two main practices of establishing rice plants are transplanting and direct seeding. Transplanting is the way most of the crop establishment is gone in asia.It requires more labour.It is done when a per-germinated seed are transferred from a seedbed to wet field. Direct seeding is when dry seed or pre-germinated seeds and seedlings are broadcast by hand or planted by machine. In rainfed and deepwater ecosystems, dry seed is manually broadcast onto the soil surface and then incorporated either by ploughing or by harrowing while the soil is still dry.      

WATER MANAGEMENT:                                                                                      
                         water is the main source for rice cultivation.rice is a crop which is very sensitive to water shortages.Most of the crop which fails are due to water shortage and thus water management is very important for the growth of rice.


                         It involves ensuring that the rice gets enough nutrients for its good growth.Because of prolonged flooding in rice fields, farmers are able to conserve soil organic matter and also receive free input of nitrogen from biological sources.If higher yields are the target then the rice will need more nutrients. 


 The rice plant has a wide array of ‘enemies’ in the field. These include rodents, harmful insects, viruses, diseases, and weeds. Farmers use many different strategies to control these pests and diseases to maintain crop health. The crop heath is important for rice growth and it lies in the farmer hands to ensure that.


                    Harvesting is the process of collecting the mature rice crop from the field. Depending on the variety, a rice crop usually reaches maturity at around 115-120 days after crop establishment. Harvesting activities include cutting, stacking, handling, threshing, cleaning, and hauling. Good harvesting methods help maximize grain yield and minimize grain damage and deterioration.


                    After harvest, the rice grain undergoes a number of processes depending on how it will be used. Such methods include, drying, storing, milling, and processing.

After the completion of all these process the rice is ready for use.This is how rice is grown in most part of the world.


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